Main Article Content
The overall goal of this paper is to investigate the long run and casual relationship between agriculture gross production value (AGPV), arable land (AL), total economically active population in agricultural sector (APA) and total primary energy consumption in the agricultural sector given the historical trend of these variables. For a panel of 76 countries during the period 1991–2012, the paper’s three main findings are that: (i) Neutrality hypothesis is adopted because there is no causality between AL and AGPV.; (ii) APA-led AGPV; (iii) Feedback hypothesis indicates that there are four cases of bidirectional causality between the rest of the variables. Adaptation measures are recommended for both authorities and farmers to ensure food security, such as providing incentives for farmers to adopt more recent technologies, which consumes less energy, land reclamation, steer more employees towards the agricultural sector.
Keywords: Agriculture gross production value, arable land, active population, energy consumption, panel co-integration, panel Granger causality.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).