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This study aimed to investigate differences in the mathematical problem-solving and metacognitive skills of fifth grade students in Oman as a function of gender and level of academic achievement. The participants were 90 grade five students randomly selected from one educational governorate in the Sultanate of Oman. They were evenly divided into three groups based on gender and levels of academic achievement. Four instruments were used in the study: a mathematical problem-solving test, a non-verbal metacognitive scale, Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices and a long-term memory test. Attempts were made to ensure the validity and reliability of these measures. The results for metacognitive and mathematical problem-solving skills indicate that students with a high level of academic achievement obtained the highest score while students enrolled in a learning disability program obtained the lowest score. In addition, the results showed gender differences in metacognitive skills but no gender differences in mathematical problem-solving. The results are discussed in view of the role of metacognitive skills in improving student learning performance somewhat independently of their intelligence level and long-term memory. In addition, possible interventions were identified that may improve the metacognitive skills of students enrolled in the learning disability program. This could lead to improvement of their academic performance in mathematical problem-solving skills.
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